HELP!! PARCC Testing Acronyms: EBSR/TECR

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A timely question by Darren Burris sparked my realization that many don't know how PARCC is going to assess students.

A timely question by Darren Burris sparked my realization that many don’t know how PARCC is going to assess students.

My virtual educational colleague, Darren Burris, recently inquired about PARCC’s growing list of acronyms. Specifically, Darren wanted to know more about the EBSR or Evidence-Based Selected-Response, a multiple choice item designed by PARCC to assess not only the accuracy of test-takers reading responses but also the evidence they used to draw those conclusions. As you can see from the screen shot, Darren’s tweet that was followed up by others asking what EBSR meant. I replied to Darren’s question through a series of  tweets, but both his inquiry and the interested spike among other Twitter peeps made me realize that many are not yet knowledgeable much less comfortable with the format of the new assessment.

What is an EBSR?

An Evidence-Based Selected-Response (EBSR) is one of the three “item” types by which PARCC will measure student’s proficiency with achieving grade level reading standards. The other two item types are the Technology-Enhanced Constructed-Response (TECR), and the Prose Constructed Response  (PCR), which simply put is an essay for which I have written a separate blog post: Another PARCC Acronym: The PCR or Prose Constructed Response…the essay. More on those later. Foro now, let’s keep our focus here on the EBSR.

Essentially, an EBSR is like a conventional multiple choice question. What makes the EBSR different from the conventional multiple choice is the nature of  the  “item.” All EBSR items are two-parts developed through the use of paired questions. The first part measures reader accuracy and comprehension of text(s) (with a measure of reading standards 2-9) and the second part measures the textual reader evidence a reader has used to develop that accurate comprehension (reading standard 1). What does that mean?

The 2-Part Item

The first question in the two-part item directly addresses student accuracy in applying one or more reading standards from the grade-level standards 2-9: the test-taker reads the question, considers the choices by closely reading the text, confirms his/her understanding through revisiting the text, eliminates the distractors, and marks the response. The second question asks the reader for evidence to support comprehension–the answer marked for the first question–by identifying text evidence that directly or inferentially justifies the initial response. The simplest format for these two-part items are two related questions each with four answer choices. Part A questions may provide distractors that represent misreadings of the text; however, all Part B choices (including distractors) must be “accurate and relevant from the passage (whether exact citations or paraphrases) (Item Guidelines for ELA/Literacy PARCC Summative Assessment, 2013. p. 23).

All EBSR items on the PARCC assessment will be two-part items as seen in this screen capture.

Most EBSR items on the PARCC assessment will be two-part items as seen in this screen capture.

Examining the EBSR

Let’s look at an example provided by PARCC. Although this example is designated for 6th grade, all grade-level examples (3-11) look essentially the same…well, until they look different. More on that in a moment. Each item is worth 2-points. Again, grade level doesn’t matter–2 points for each item and an item is comprised of two-questions. As you can see here, part one of the item (the first question) asks the reader to indicate what the word “regal” means as used in the passage. This question is assessing RL.6.4: “Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone.”  Part 2 of the item (the second question) is assessing RL.6.1 (the evidence standard): Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. The student was asked to “determine” or infer the meaning of the word regal, then asked to cite the evidence supporting that inference. At its basic level, that is how an EBSR works.

Scoring an EBSR

Students can earn full credit, the 2 points, by getting both questions or Part A and Part B correct. OR they can earn partial credit of one point by getting Part A correct but not having a correct answer on Part B. However, if students have an incorrect answer on Part A but a correct answer on Part B, they earn no credit. The idea here is that students need to know the answer and be able to show their thinking in getting there. In a previous PARCC release of item guidelines (Version 8.0 released April 25, 2013, p. 28), allowances for one part EBSRs were delineated:

  • In grade 3, a one part EBSR is allowable because Reading Standard 1 evidence 1 is distinctly different from Reading Standard 1 in grades 4-11.
  • In grades 4-11, a one part EBSR is allowable when there are multiple correct responses that elicit multiple evidences to support a generalization, conclusion or inference.

Interestingly, these caveats do not appear in the most recently released guidelines (October 22, 2013) although the scoring guidelines (Item Guidelines for ELA/Literacy PARCC…, p. 31). Although some one-part items were developing during Phase One, one-part items are not being developed during Phase Two, the current test development period.

The More Sophisticated EBSR

Some EBSR items will ask students to identify multiple correct answers.

Some EBSR items will ask students to identify multiple correct answers.

Not all EBSR items are as straightforward as the example shown above: a simple two part item, each part offering four choices and only one correct answer among those provided. In more sophisticated items, students may be asked to identify a correct answer while noting there is more than one correct response possible. When that is the case, the item will clearly state that there is more than one correct answer but warn the student they need only select one response. Under those circumstances, there must be six options from which to choose.

An even more sophisticated item design, exemplified at the left, depicts an item that asks students to identify multiple correct answers, in this case, three pieces of evidence to support the selection in Part A. For those items asking students too identify three correct responses(allowed only in grades 6-11), there must be seven options from which to choose. If students are to choose more than one response (as would often be required for a question addressing both RA8 and RA9), the test form will indicate how many responses students are to choose rather than the vague language of “select all that apply.”

What is a TECR?

Some PARCC items have more than one right answer and more than one part....

Some PARCC items have more than one right answer and more than one part….

The Technology Enhanced Constructed Response (TECR) is similar to the EBSR in purpose: to measure both reading comprehension of standards 2-9 and reading taker will go back into the text and highlight a selection or return to the text, select a phrase or sentence and drag and drop that response into a dialogue box. Other possibilities are also open for exploration by the test developers.

Regardless, the two-part (and in some cases three-part) items function similar to the EBSR: Part A asks the test-takers to select an answer among a series of choices to a question measuring reading/comprehension accuracy. Part B asks test-takers to find evidence to support the response. How does a three-part TECR evolve? In a situation similar to the EBSR described above–one that asks for two pieces of evidence, a three-part TECR will result as shown at the left in a PARCC example of a Technology-Enhanced Constructed-Response (TECR). PARCC’s assessment guidelines indicate that one suggested use of the TECR as the Part B and/or Part C is when the text itself offers more than four text evidences though this may not be the only situation under which a TECR is used. The freedom of drag and drop allows readers to go to a place in a text that supported their thinking rather than sift through a long list of possible options.

Scoring Multiple-Multiple Choice Items

Items with multiple responses and multiple parts are scored differently than the simple four-choice questions and items. Obviously, if the student answers both parts of the item with full correctness (all options correct on both Part A and Part B and Part C if there is one!), s/he earns 2 points. If the test-taker gets Part A, the reading accuracy portion of the item, correct but misses Part B (evidence) on a simple 4-choice item, s/he earns one point.  However, if the test-taker misses Part A (reading accuracy), s/he will receive no points regardless of the correctness of Part B or Part C (if there is one). On the other hand, if Part A has multiple correct answers and the test taker gets at least one of those responses correct, but misses the evidence questions, the test taker will earn 1-point. To read the scoring document published by PARCC, access the Assessment Guideline, p. 31.

Where Will We See the EBSR and TECR

The Evidence-Based Selected-Response and the Technology-Enhanced Constructed-Response will appear on both PARCC assessments that comprise PARCC’s summative assessment: the Performance-Based Assessment (PBA) that will occur in the spring and the End of Year Assessment (EOY) that will be given in late spring. On the PBA, each text readers engage with will have a series of these items. Both the Literary Analysis and the Research Simulation Task will have two items related to grade-level reading standards 1-3 and 4-9 and one directly addressing grade-level reading standard 4 (vocabulary) for each text read (two texts for the literary analysis and three for the research simulation task). The Narrative Task, however, is different and will have five items associated to grade-level standards 1-9. To learn about the specific relationships between the performance tasks and the standards assessed by an EBSR or TECR, check out my PARCC Aligned Planners.  From the appearances on PARCC’s Assessment Blueprint, the End of Year (EOY) Assessment will offer up a range of EBSRs and TECRs  at each grade level, 3-11 (ELA/Literacy Form Specifications Grades 3-5, Grades 6-8, and Grades 9-11).

My Advice?

Instructionally, become more open-ended on the kind of thinking you ask students to practice. This kind of thinking is supported by texts with rich and deep ideas or theories. Acknowledge the multiple possibilities for both inference making and supporting evidence. Look for ways to move deeper into thinking and academic connections rather than limiting thought with single and simple responses. In terms of class assessment, begin to readjust the types of multiple choice questions you offer. PARCC’s approach is different from conventional multiple-choice. I don’t think the task is over burdensome although the thinking required will be deeper–for test taker and test writer!

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18 Responses to “HELP!! PARCC Testing Acronyms: EBSR/TECR”

  1. Tina Cole February 18, 2014 at 8:51 pm #

    Are you kidding me? This is way too complicated for my fifth graders. I don’t even know where to begin with these questions. This is so unfair to them. By the time they do the first question, they will be so frustrated that you will not get a true picture of what they really know. The way you award or don’t award points does not seem fair. I am disappointed with ODE for adopting PARCC. There are so many glitches. I consider my school “middle of the road” as far as scores like the OAA. On this assessment, we will go from a “B” on the state report card to a “D” or an “F” which in the eyes of the community would be awful. Are we helping or hurting kids with this method of testing?

    • Dr. Dea Conrad-Curry March 6, 2014 at 8:58 am #

      Thanks for responding to my blog entry. Most people don’t take the time!

      I’m sorry you feel your students are not up to this task. Actually, I travel to many schools and most teachers rather appreciate the nature of these assessments and the quality of the questions. True, everyone agrees this is a game changer for assessment; these two part questions are not from our generation. And that is why they are “next generation” assessments. It looks to me like you are in Texas. If so, I didn’t think Texas was participating in Common Core and therefore, neither in PARCC or SBAC. However, if you are keeping up with other test makers (like ACT and/or SAT), they, too are going to 2-part questions that expect students to cite directly from the text as support for their answers.

      What we have to do as teachers is start putting these types of questions in front of our kids on their classroom work, in whole class discussion–group work–on tests. That way, they will have practice with the technique AND be using their brains to answer questions and think about why they gave the answer they did. Hope that helps.

      • Lisa Hindman June 30, 2014 at 10:52 am #

        Dr. Conrad-Curry,
        I appreciate all the details explaining PARCC. I have been a Paraprofessional for 12 years, raised three kids. I might be old school but you”lost me at hello” I will never understand why teaching children has to change so dramatically. I understand we have to keep up with technology which I am always doing but this way of teaching kids is sooo confusing. Teachers are getting put through hell trying to understand. Have these people even taught before who make up all these ways of testing? How about I have 7th graders who don’t even know their times tables. It to me is one whole waste of teachers, taxpayers and kids time. I might sound old school but I know alot of bright teachers right out of college who are just as baffled. Thanks for letting me vent…..

        • Dr. Dea Conrad-Curry July 2, 2014 at 4:57 am #

          I sometimes question the experience of test writers, too. But the fact that some 7th graders do not know their times tables is not the responsibility of test writers…and I’m hopeful you would agree that most children…all who possibly have the intellectual capacity to do so should know their times tables by 7th grade. And if I lost you “at hello” know you are not alone. Many teachers I speak with have very little knowledge of PARCC, even though the assessment will be used to assess their students and possibly, their own professional adequacy, in the future. The rollout of Common Core and PARCC has not be structured in the most positive way…but the fact that kids lack both developmentally appropriate knowledge and skills is the reason we need change in education. If we continue to do what we have been doing, we will continue to get what we seem to be getting…and that is…left behind in the advancing course of intellectual and creative growth.

  2. Patricia September 30, 2014 at 12:43 pm #

    Hello, I am working on documenting how an instructional system will accommodate this type of question, and I am referring to a publication from that says that students have to get BOTH parts of the question right for any credit. If they miss one part, they get no credit. Here is the excerpt “As these are scored, it is much easier for educators to determine when students are guessing. For example, students may get the first part of a response correct, but their reasoning may be faulty. If a student answers the first part incorrectly, but answers the second part “correctly,” he or she will not get credit for the response, as it is apparent that the student is guessing.”
    Your article indicates that partial credit is possible. I am confused now, so any thoughts on the topic, and can you provide me the source for your information please? Maybe I interpreted the passage incorrectly? Thank you very much.

    • Dr. Dea Conrad-Curry September 30, 2014 at 3:35 pm #

      Hi Patricia–
      For PARCC partial credit is possible. If students have the first part of the question correct they earn 1 point; if they do not get the second part correct, they keep their one point but obviously do not add to that. However, if they get the second part correct after having missed the first part, they get no credit. My evidence, Item Guidelines for ELA/Literacy PARCC Summative Assessment (p. 31).

      • Lucy February 11, 2015 at 10:23 pm #

        Thank you so much for all of your valuable insight. I have been trying to find more about scoring EBSR questions. I copied an excerpt from the link you cited to see if the information has changed. I found this on p. 26 of that document instead of p. 31, so it is possible that the document has been updated.

        I do see how it indicates partial credit is desirable, but item “e” specifically states that there is no partial credit if there is only one correct response for each part. Most questions I have seen on the practice tests fit into this category.

        “2. Variable Elements
        Operational items developed using the EBSR Reading model may possess the following characteristics:
        a. Allow for paper and pencil delivery and technology-based delivery.
        b. Allow for paper and pencil response and technology-based response.
        c. For those items with one correct response, four answer choices are requisite. For those items with two correct responses (even if the student selects only one), six answer choices are requisite. For those items with three correct response, even if the student selects only one (allowed only in grades 6-11), seven answer choices are requisite.
        d. Partial credit is allowable and desirable. Items should be designed such that partial credit is granted when students demonstrate evidence of meeting reading standard 1 and one or more additional reading standards.
        e. For those items with one correct response, in Part A and one correct response in Part B, there is no partial credit.
        f. For those items with one or more correct responses in Part A and more than one correct response in Part B, there is partial credit. To receive partial credit, students must
        answer Part A correctly AND select at least one correct response in Part B. This will earn the student 1 point. For these items, to receive full credit, students must answer both Part A and Part B correctly” (26).

        • Dr. Dea Conrad-Curry February 16, 2015 at 9:07 am #

          Hi Lucy…

          Here is a copy of the page from the most recent PARCC Item Guidelines…partial credit appears applicable for single response items. Which of the documents did you link to for the reference on page 26? Page 26 on Item Guidelines discusses TECRs…not scoring.

  3. Smithg334 October 7, 2014 at 5:25 pm #

    Can you add a Blackberry template? This web page is tricky to read otherwise for those of us browsing with cell phones. Otherwise, in the event you can place a RSS link up, that would be good also.

    • Dr. Dea Conrad-Curry October 11, 2014 at 10:11 am #

      Thanks for the input. Checking into it…

  4. monét c. October 11, 2014 at 10:30 am #

    This was extremely helpful to my understanding of the PARCC and the language is useful in terms of sharing this with parents. PARCC is most definitely a shift, but it is making some headway in eliminating bias from testing (though there are still some issues), but also assessing critical thinking and knowledge acquisition skills. All of these skills will serve them well in assessing real-world information that they will need to read and think critically about.

    Thank you for taking the time to do this.

  5. Sydney Shaw November 20, 2014 at 2:48 pm #

    I would like to thank you so much for this post. I have been using Evidence Based questions on Unseen Comprehension tests and have seen substantial improvement in their grades by doing close reads and annotations with them. When PARCC let out descriptions of the types of tests and test questions they were going to use I wanted to start using the same styled questions so they would be used to them come the end of the year. This was a problem for me when I saw the “LMNOP” that the PARCC sent out on the chart yet I was unable to find an explanation for in the document. Now that I have read and highlighted the key elements I feel like I am fully prepared to go into this Thanksgiving holiday (who ever actually takes off a full holiday anyway?) and begin constructing items to introduce students to these new formats.

    On another note, we use EADMS here as a district assessment and I saw that I am able to make a test on it, by any chance would you happen to know if this particular site allows for those TECR styled questions. If not are you aware of any other sites that do allow for these (or really any AB styled questioning) so I can start making tests online for students to get used to the moving and typing for their tests?

    Thank You!

    • Dr. Dea Conrad-Curry November 20, 2014 at 2:58 pm #

      Hi Sydney–
      Thanks for your comments and words of appreciation. This post is my top “hit” earner, but rarely does anyone take the time to share their thoughts. Right now, I’m not aware of a site that allows teacher to design the TECR styled questions. However, I think one could get pretty darn close using a Adobe Pro, but that is a bit costly and learning to use it (in my humble opinion) is a bear. Overtime, my suspicion is that more user friendly technology will be available.

      I’m not sure what you mean by LMNOP…but nonetheless…so pleased my explanations resonated in your brain!

    • Dr. Dea Conrad-Curry November 20, 2014 at 3:10 pm #

      Just another quick note: I am reading PARCC’s updated “Formatted Item Guidelines” now and a point made quite clear in this document is related to your inquiry regarding the design of TECR items. PARCC’s design will be 75% EBSR and only 25% TECR. I mention this because although it is important that students be able to use the kind of computer skills that will make the thinking about and answering these types of questions easier, the preponderance of performance evidence will come from the EBSR and PCR.

      Happy Thanksgiving!

  6. Person March 31, 2015 at 12:51 pm #

    I find it somewhat unfair because teachers have to change their lesson plan completely to teach to the guidelines.

    • Dr. Dea Conrad-Curry March 31, 2015 at 1:50 pm #

      I am not sure what you mean by guidelines…whether you are referencing the Common Core Standards or the PARCC Assessment Blueprint. Teachers need support in this transition, but the issue isn’t one of fairness. The issue should be what is best for learners. And to be fair to learners, lesson plans should change; they should not be written in stone. Facts change, theories change, learners change and vary. Teachers should be constantly updating and revising lesson plans. Fair or not, change is a reality of life.

  7. Terri Larsen January 15, 2016 at 7:21 pm #

    Unfortunately, our educational system in this country is getting away from thinking of the students and their developmental ages. This sample fifth grade test is great because it is higher level thinking, but at grade levels much higher than MOST 5th graders developmental thinking. Yes, they can get there, but at what expense…severe anxiety, high stress levels, feelings of inadequacy, etc. This is all making me so sad for our children today.

    • Dr. Dea Conrad-Curry January 15, 2016 at 10:48 pm #

      Thank you for taking the time to post, Terri. Developmental levels of students at every age and grade run the gamut. There are so many factors acting on our children today that some seem to be beyond their years when in reality, the face they put forward is a facade to cover their own confusion. And then some feel they are ahead of the pack when in reality, they have “miles to go before they sleep.” The anxiety is felt not only by students but also by their teachers. A system can never value the individual because it is “the system.” Rather, it is the responsibility of individuals in the system to stand strong for the rights and the needs of the people. I feel change in the air–a kinder, gentler approach that keeps expectations high and simultaneously values the individual. See my newest blog: Every Student Succeeds Act Shifting Educational Gears: Evidence Based Practice Preeminent. Even the title has a more positive nuance than No Child Left Behind.

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